THE NEGRO IN THE REGULAR ARMY





When the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts Regiment stormed Fort Wagner

July 18, 1863, only to be driven back with the loss of its

colonel, Robert Gould Shaw, and many of its rank and file, it

established for all time the fact that the colored soldier would

fight and fight well. This had already been demonstrated in

Louisiana by colored regiments under the command of General

Godfrey Weitzel in the attack upon Port Hudson on May 27 of the

same year. On that occasion regiments composed for the greater

part of raw recruits, plantation hands with centuries of servitude

under the lash behind them, stormed trenches and dashed upon cold

steel in the hands of their former masters and oppressors. After

that there was no more talk in the portion of the country of the

"natural cowardice" of the negro. But the heroic qualities of

Colonel Shaw, his social prominence and that of his officers, and

the comparative nearness of their battlefield to the North,

attracted greater and more lasting attention to the daring and

bravery of their exploit, until it finally became fixed in many

minds as the first real baptism of fire of colored American

soldiers.



After Wagner the recruiting of colored regiments, originally

opposed by both North and South, went on apace, particularly under

the Federal government, which organized no less than one hundred

and fifty-four, designated as "United States Colored Troops."

Colonel Shaw's raising of a colored regiment aroused quite as much

comment in the North because of the race prejudice it defied, as

because of the novelty of the new organization. General Weitzel

tendered his resignation the instant General B. F. Butler assigned

black soldiers to his brigade, and was with difficulty induced to

serve on. His change of mind was a wise one, and not only because

these colored soldiers covered him with glory at Port Hudson. It

was his good fortune to be the central figure in one of the

dramatic incidents of a war that must ever rank among the most

thrilling and tragic the world has seen. The black cavalrymen who

rode into Richmond, the first of the Northern troops to enter the

Southern capital, went in waving their sabres and crying to the

negroes on the sidewalks, "We have come to set you free!" They

were from the division of Godfrey Weitzel, and American history

has no more stirring moment.



In the South, notwithstanding the raising in 1861 of a colored

Confederate regiment by Governor Moore of Louisiana (a magnificent

body of educated colored men which afterwards became the First

Louisiana National Guards of General Weitzel's brigade and the

first colored regiment in the Federal Army), the feeling against

negro troops was insurmountable until the last days of the

struggle. Then no straw could be overlooked. When, in December,

1863, Major-General Patrick R. Cleburne, who commanded a division

of Hardee's Corps of the Confederate Army of the Tennessee, sent

in a paper in which the employment of the slaves as soldiers of

the South was vigorously advocated, Jefferson Davis indorsed it

with the statement, "I deem it inexpedient at this time to give

publicity to this paper, and request that it be suppressed."

General Cleburne urged that "freedom within a reasonable time" be

granted to every slave remaining true to the Confederacy, and was

moved to this action by the valor of the Fifty-fourth

Massachusetts, saying, "If they [the negroes] can be made to face

and fight bravely against their former masters, how much more

probable is it that with the allurement of a higher reward, and

led by those masters, they would submit to discipline and face

dangers?"



With the ending of the civil war the regular army of the United

States was reorganized upon a peace footing by an act of Congress

dated July 28, 1866. In just recognition of the bravery of the

colored volunteers six regiments, the Ninth and Tenth Cavalry and

the Thirty-eighth, Thirty-ninth, Fortieth, and Forth-first

Infantry, were designated as colored regiments. When the army was

again reduced in 1869, the Thirty-eighth and Forty-first became

the Twenty-fourth Infantry, and the Thirty-ninth and Fortieth

became the Twenty-fifth. This left four colored regiments in the

regular army as it was constituted from 1870 until 1901. There

has never been a colored artillery organization in the regular

service.



To these new regiments came a motley mixture of veterans of

volunteer organizations, newly released slaves, and some freedmen

of several years' standing but without military experience. They

were eager to learn, and soon showed the same traits which

distinguish the black regiments to-day,--loyalty to their officers

and to their colors, sobriety and courage, and a notable pride in

the efficiency of their corps. But if ever officers had to

"father and mother" their soldiers they were the company officers

of these regiments. The captains in particular had to be bankers,

secretaries, advisers, and judges for their men. As Lieutenant

Grote Hutcheson has stated it, "The men knew nothing, and the non-

commissioned officers but little more. From the very

circumstances of their preceding life it could not be otherwise.

They had no independence, no self-reliance, not a thought except

for the present, and were filled with superstition." Yet the

officers were determined to prove the wisdom of the experiment.

To do this they were forced to give their own attention to the

minutest details of military administration, and to act as non-

commissioned officers. The total lack of education among the men

necessitated an enormous amount of writing by the officers. In

the Ninth Cavalry only one man was found able to write well enough

to be sergeant-major, and not for several years was it possible to

obtain troop clerks. When the Tenth Cavalry was being recruited

an officer was sent to Philadelphia with the express purpose of

picking up educated colored men for the non-commissioned

positions. Difficult as the tasks of the officers thus were, most

of them felt well repaid for their unusual labors by the

affectionate regard in which they were held by their soldiers, and

by the never-failing good humor with which the latter went about

their duties.



As the years passed the character of the colored soldiers

naturally changed. In place of the war veterans, and of the men

whose chains of servitude had just been struck off, came young men

from the North and East with more education and more self-

reliance. They depended less upon their officers, both in the

barracks and in the field, yet they reverenced and cared for them

as much as did their predecessors. Their greatest faults then as

now were gambling and quarreling. On the other hand, the negro

regiments speedily became favorably known because of greater

sobriety and of fewer desertions than among the white soldiers.

It was the Ninth Cavalry which a few years ago astonished the army

by reporting not a single desertion in twelve months, an unheard-

of and perhaps undreamed-of record. In all that goes to make a

good soldier, in drill, fidelity, and smartness, the negro regular

from the first took front rank.



Nor was there ever any lack of the fighting quality which had

gratified the nation at Fort Wagner, or at Fort Blakely, Ala.,

where the Seventy-third Colored Infantry, under Colonel Henry C.

Merriam, stormed the enemy's works, in advance of orders, in one

of the last actions of the war. It soon fell to the lot of the

Ninth and Tenth Cavalry to prove that the negroes could do as well

under fire in the Indian wars as they had when fighting for the

freedom of their race. While the Twenty-fourth and Twenty-fifth

Infantry had merely garrison work to do, the Ninth and Tenth

Cavalry scouted for years against hostile Indians in Texas, New

Mexico, Colorado, and Kansas, always acquitting themselves

honorably. In September, 1868, a little over two years after

their organization, three troops of the Ninth Cavalry did well in

an action against Indians at Horsehead Hills, Texas. When General

George A. Forsyth and his detachment of fifty scouts were

surrounded and "corralled" by seven hundred Indians on an island

in the Republican River, it was the troop of Captain Louis H.

Carpenter, of the Tenth Cavalry, which first came to their rescue.

Similarly when Major T. T. Thornburg's command was nearly wiped

out by Utes in 1879, it was Captain F. S. Dodge's Troop D of the

Ninth which succeeded in reaching it in time, losing all its

horses in so doing. This regiment alone took part in sixty Indian

fights between 1868 and 1890, during which time it lost three

officers and twenty-seven men killed, and had three officers and

thirty-four men wounded. The Tenth Cavalry's casualties were also

heavy during this same period, and it fought for many years over a

most difficult country in New Mexico and Arizona, taking a

conspicuous part in running to earth Geronimo's and Victoria's

bands of Apaches.



On one of these campaigns Lieutenant Powhatan H. Clarke gave

effective proof of the affection which the officers of colored

regiments have for their men. In the fight in the Pineto

Mountains with a portion of Geronimo's forces this young

Southerner risked his life to save a colored sergeant who had

fallen wounded in an open space where both he and his rescuer were

easy marks for the Apaches. For this gallant act Lieutenant

Clarke rightly received a medal of honor. The Twenty-fourth

Infantry, on the other hand, has contributed a striking instance

of the devotion of colored soldiers to their officers. When Major

Joseph W. Wham, paymaster, was attacked by robbers on May 11,

1889, his colored escort fought with such gallantry that every one

of the soldiers was awarded a medal of honor or a certificate of

merit. Some of them stood their ground although badly wounded,

notably Sergeant Benjamin Brown, who continued to fight and to

encourage his men until shot through both arms. In a fight

against Apaches in the Cuchilo Negro Mountains of New Mexico on

August 16, 1881, Moses Williams, First Sergeant of Troop I, Ninth

Cavalry, displayed such gallantry that he was given a medal of

honor by common consent. When the only officer with the

detachment, Lieutenant Gustavus Valois, had his horse shot under

him, and was cut off from his men, Sergeant Williams promptly

rallied the detachment, and conducted the right flank in a running

fight for several hours with such coolness, bravery, and

unflinching devotion to duty that he undoubtedly saved the lives

of at least three comrades. His action in standing by and

rescuing Lieutenant Valois was the more noteworthy because he and

his men were subjected, in an exposed position, to a heavy fire

from a large number of Indians. For splendid gallantry against

Indians, while serving as sergeant of Troop K, Ninth Cavalry, on

May 14, 1880, and August 12, 1881, George Jordan was also given a

medal of honor. Five of the medal of honor men now in the service

are colored soldiers, while fifteen others have "certificates of

merit" also awarded for conspicuous deeds of bravery.



It was not until the battle of Santiago, however, that the bulk of

the American people realized that the standing army comprised

regiments composed wholly of black men. Up to that time only one

company of colored soldiers had served at a post east of the

Mississippi. Even Major, later Brigadier-General, Guy V. Henry's

gallop to the rescue of the Seventh Cavalry on December 30, 1890,

with four troops of the Ninth Cavalry, attracted but little

attention. This feat was the more remarkable because Major

Henry's command had just completed a march of more than one

hundred miles in twenty-four hours. But in the battle at

Santiago, the four colored regiments won praise from all sides,

particularly for their advance upon Kettle Hill, in which the

Rough Riders also figured. From the very beginning of the

movement of the army after its landing, the negro troops were in

the front of the fighting, and contributed largely to the

successful result. Although they suffered heavy losses,

especially in officers, the men fought with the same gallantry

they had displayed on the plains, as is attested by the honors

awarded. In every company there were instances of personal

gallantry. The first sergeants especially lived up to the

responsibilities placed upon them. The color sergeant of the

Tenth Cavalry, Adam Houston, bore to the front not only his own

flags, but those of the Third Cavalry when the latter's color

sergeant was shot down. In several emergencies where troops or

companies lost their white officers, the senior sergeants took

command and handled their men in a faultless manner, notably in

the Tenth Cavalry.



Indeed, the conduct of these men has done much to dispel the old

belief that colored soldiers will fight only when they have

efficient white officers. This may well have been true at one

period of the civil war when the colored race as a whole had never

even had the responsibilities attaching to free men. It is

growing less and less true as time passes and better educated men

enter the ranks. in recognition of their achievements at Santiago

a number of these black non-commissioned officers were made

commissioned officers in several of the so-called "immune"

regiments of United States Volunteers raised in July, 1898. None

of these organizations were in service long enough to become

really efficient, and a few were never properly disciplined.

Nevertheless, a majority of the officers promoted from the colored

regulars bore themselves well under exceedingly trying

circumstances. Some of them, and a number of regular sergeants

and corporals who had succeeded to their former places, were made

lieutenants and captains in the Forty-eighth and Forty-ninth

Volunteer Infantry, which served in the Philippines for two years,

and to which we shall recur later.



At Santiago the characteristic cheerfulness of the negro soldiers

was as striking as their bravery. In his little book called The

Nth Foot In War, Lieutenant M. B. Stewart says of them:--



"The negro troops were in a high good humor. They had made the

charge of the day; they had fought with a dash and vigor which

forever established their reputation as fighters, and which would

carry them down in the pages of history. To have heard them that

night no one would have ever thought that they had lived for

twelve mortal hours under a galling fire. They were laughing and

joking over the events of the day, in the same manner they would

have done had they been returning from a picnic.



"'Golly,' laughed a six-foot sergeant, 'dere was music in de air

sho' nuff. Dat lead was flying around in sheets, I tell you. I

seen a buzzard flying around in front of our line, and I says to

myself, "Buzzard, you is in a mighty dangerous position. You

better git out uf dat, 'cause dey ain't room out dar for a

muskeeter."' Another remarked, 'Say, did you see dat man Brown;

pity dat man been killed. He'd a been a corporal, sho.'



"In the utter exhaustion of the moment all race and social

distinctions were forgotten. Officers lay down among their men

and slept like logs. The negro troops sought out soft places

along the sides of the road and lay down with their white

comrades. There was a little commotion among the latter, and an

officer was heard to yell: 'Here, you man, take your feet off my

stomach. Well, I'll be damned if it ain't a nigger. Get out, you

black rascal.' As the commotion subsided, the negro was heard to

remark, 'Well, if dat ain't de mos' particler man I ever see.'"



Characteristic also is a story of the negro cavalryman who,

returning to the rear, said to some troops anxious to get to the

front: "Dat's all right, gemmen; don't git in a sweat; dere's lots

of it lef' for you. You wants to look out for dese yere

sharpshooters, for dey is mighty careless with dere weapons, and

dey is specially careless when dey is officers aroun'."



As soon as the army settled down in the trenches before Santiago,

smuggled musical instruments--guitars, banjos, mouth organs, and

what not--appeared among the negro troops as if by magic, and they

were ever in use. It was at once a scene of cheerfulness and

gayety, and the officers had their usual trouble in making the men

go to sleep instead of spending the night in talking, singing, and

gaming. In the peaceful camp of the Third Alabama, in that state,

the scenes were similar. There was always "a steady hum of

laughter and talk, dance, song, shout, and the twang of musical

instruments." It was "a scene full of life and fun, of jostling,

scuffling, and racing, of clown performances and cake-walks, of

impromptu minstrelsy, speech-making, and preaching, of deviling,

guying, and fighting, both real and mimic." The colonel found

great difficulty in getting men to work alone. Two would

volunteer for any service. "Colonel," said a visitor to the camp,

"your sentinels are sociable fellows. I saw No. 5 over at the end

of his beat entertaining No. 6 with some fancy manual of arms.

Afterwards, with equal amiability, No. 6 executed a most artistic

cake-walk for his friend." It must be remembered here that this

colonel's men were typical Southern negroes, literate and

illiterate, and all new to military life.



In addition to the Forty-eighth and Forty-ninth Volunteers, the

four regular colored regiments have served in the Philippines.

Here the work was particularly trying and the temptations to

misconduct many. The Filipino women were especially attractive to

the men because of their color, and it is on record that several

soldiers were tempted from their allegiance to the United States.

Two of these, whose sympathy and liking for the Filipinos overcame

their judgment, paid the full penalty of desertion, being hanged

by their former comrades. Both belonged to the Ninth Cavalry. On

the other hand, in a remarkable order issued by General A. S. Burt

in relinquishing command of the Twenty-fifth Infantry, on April

17, 1902, on his promotion to brigadier-general, he was able to

quote the Inspector-General of the army as saying: "The Twenty-

fifth Infantry is the best regiment I have seen in the

Philippines." General Burt praised highly the excellent conduct

of the enlisted men while in the Archipelago, which proved to his

mind that the American negroes are "as law-abiding as any race in

the world."



Three of General Burt's sergeants, Russell, McBryar, and Hoffman,

were promoted to the Forty-eighth and Forty-ninth Volunteers, and

served, as lieutenants, for several months with their old

regiment, the Twenty-fifth, until the arrival of their new

regiments in Manila. During this time they were frequently under

fire. General Burt bore high testimony to their soldierly

bearing, their capacity and ability, and expressed great regret

when he was forced to let them go. McBryar had won a medal of

honor for gallantry against Indians in Arizona in 1890. In the

Forty-ninth Volunteers, Company L, composed wholly of colored men,

and commanded by Captain Edward L. Baker, a colored veteran of

Santiago, who had served for seventeen years in the Ninth and

Tenth Cavalry and in the Tenth "Immunes," made a wonderful record.

According to a statement which was widely published at the time

and never denied, this company had on its rolls during a period of

twelve months one hundred and six men who were fit for duty at all

times and never lost a day on account of sickness. No white

company remotely approached this record. More extraordinary still

is the fact that during this same period not one of these men ever

went before a court-martial. This is surely a striking

illustration of what can be done by colored officers. It is

noticeable, too, that neither the officers nor the men of any

colored regiment have figured in the charges and counter-charges

arising out of the use of the water-torture, except one man who at

the time of his offense was not with his regiment. The Forty-

ninth Volunteers was a very unhappy regiment during its brief

life, but its troubles were largely due to its white officers.

One of these, a major, was dismissed for misconduct, and his place

was filled by the senior captain, a colored man. Several other

white officers and one colored captain got into serious trouble,

the last being dismissed. The Forty-eighth was, on the contrary,

a contented organization in which the colored officers were

treated in a kindly and courteous manner by their white associates

and superiors. The two regiments afford a striking illustration

of Napoleon's saying, "There are no such things as poor

regiments,--only poor colonels."



The negro regiment unquestionably calls for different treatment

from that which would be accorded to white troops, just as the

Indian troops of King Edward's army require different handling

from that called for in the case of the King's Royal Rifles. Yet

as fighting machines, the Indian soldiers may be the equals if not

the superiors of the Englishmen. Major Robert L. Bullard, Twenty-

eighth United States Infantry who commanded the colored Third

Alabama Volunteers, already referred to, during the war with

Spain, discusses in a remarkable paper published in the United

Service Magazine for July, 1901, the differences between negro and

white soldiers. They are so great, he says, as to require the

military commander to treat the negro as a different species. He

must fit his methods of instruction and discipline to the

characteristics of the race. Major Bullard adds that "mistakes,

injustices, and failures would result from his making the same

rules and methods apply to the two races without regard to how far

apart set by nature or separated by evolution." But Major Bullard

would unquestionably concede that these differences in no way

require a treatment of the negro soldier which implies that he is

an inferior being and which ever impresses upon him his

inferiority. Yet this seems to have been the case in the Forty-

ninth United States Volunteers.



In the regular army, as well as in the volunteers, officers have

frequently appealed with success to the negroes' pride of race,

and have urged them on to greater efficiency and better behavior

by reminding them that they have the honor of their people in

their hands. To such appeals there is ever a prompt response.

One of the most effective ways of disciplining an offender is by

holding him up to the ridicule of his fellows. The desire of the

colored soldiers to amuse and to be amused gives the officers an

easy way of obtaining a hold upon them and their affections. The

regimental rifle team, the baseball nine, the minstrel troupe, and

the regimental band offer positions of importance for which the

competition is much keener than in the white regiments. There is

also a friendly rivalry between companies, which is much missed

elsewhere in the service. The negroes are natural horsemen and

riders. It is a pleasure to them to take care of their mounts,

and a matter of pride to keep their animals in good condition.

Personally they are clean and neat, and they take the greatest

possible pride in their uniforms. In no white regiment is there a

similar feeling. With the negroes the canteen question is of

comparatively slight importance, not only because the men can be

more easily amused within their barracks, but because their

appetite for drink is by no means as strong as that of the white

men. Their sociability is astonishing. They would rather sit up

and tell stories and crack jokes than go to bed, no matter how

hard the day has been.



The dark sides are, that the negro soldiers easily turn merited

punishment into martyrdom, that their gambling propensities are

almost beyond control, that their habit of carrying concealed

weapons is incurable, and that there is danger of serious fighting

when they fall out with one another. Frequent failure to act

honorably toward a comrade in some trifling matter is apt to cause

scuffling and fighting until the men are well disciplined. Women

are another cause of quarrels, and are at all times a potent

temptation to misconduct and neglect of duty. It is very

difficult to impress upon the men the value of government

property, and duty which requires memorizing of orders is always

the most difficult to teach. For the study of guard duty manuals

or of tactics they have no natural aptitude. The non-commissioned

officers are of very great importance, and in the regulars they

are looked up to and obeyed implicitly, much more so than is the

case with white troops. It is necessary, however, for the

officers to back up the sergeants and corporals very vigorously,

even when they are slightly in the wrong. Then colored men are

more easily "rattled" by poor officers than are their white

comrades. There was a striking instance of this two or three

years ago when a newly appointed and wholly untrained white

officer lost his head at a post in Texas. His black subordinates,

largely recruits, followed suit, and in carrying out his

hysterical orders imperiled many lives in the neighboring town.

Selections for service with colored troops should therefore be

most carefully made. Major Bullard declares that the officer of

negro troops "must not only be an officer and a gentleman, but he

must be considerate, patient, laborious, self-sacrificing, a man

of affairs, and he must have knowledge and wisdom in a great lot

of things not really military."



If the position of a white officer is a difficult one, that of the

colored officer is still more so. He has not the self-assumed

superiority of the white man, naturally feels that he is on trial,

and must worry himself incessantly about his relations to his

white comrades of the shoulder straps. While the United States

Navy has hitherto been closed to negroes who aspire to be

officers, the army has pursued a wiser and more just policy. The

contrast between the two services is really remarkable. On almost

every war vessel white and black sailors sleep and live together

in crowded quarters without protest or friction. But the negro

naval officer is kept out of the service by hook or by crook for

the avowed reason that the cramped quarters of the wardroom would

make association with him intolerable. In the army, on the other

hand, the experiment of mixed regiments has never been tried. A

good colored soldier can nevertheless obtain a commission by going

through West Point, or by rising from the ranks, or by being

appointed directly from civil life.



Since the foundation of the Military Academy there have been

eighteen colored boys appointed to West Point, of whom fifteen

failed in their preliminary examinations, or were discharged after

entering because of deficiency in studies. Three were graduated

and commissioned as second lieutenants of cavalry, Henry Ossian

Flipper, John Hanks Alexander, and Charles Young. Of these,

Lieutenant Flipper was dismissed June 30, 1882, for "conduct

unbecoming an officer and a gentleman." The other two proved

themselves excellent officers, notably Young, who is at this

writing a captain, and a most efficient one, in the Ninth Cavalry,

with which he recently served in the Philippines. Lieutenant

Alexander died suddenly in 1894. In announcing his death in a

regimental order his colonel spoke of him in terms of high praise,

and did not use the customary stereotyped phrases of regret. His

fellow white officers all had good words for him. There never was

more striking testimony to the discipline and spirit of fairness

at West Point than was afforded by the sight of Cadet Charles

Young, who is of very dark complexion, commanding white cadets.

Nothing else has impressed foreign visitors at West Point half so

much.



An equally remarkable happening, and one which speaks even more

for the democratic spirit in the army, was the commissioning in

1901 of Sergeant-Major Benjamin O. Davis, Ninth Cavalry, and of

Corporal John E. Green, Twenty-fourth Infantry. Both these men

were examined by boards of white officers, who might easily have

excluded them because of color prejudice, in which case there

would have been no appeal from their findings. Lieutenant Davis's

former troop commander, a West Pointer, openly rejoiced at his

success, and predicted that he would make an excellent officer.

These are the first two colored men to rise from the ranks, but

there will be many more if the same admirable spirit of fair play

continues to rule in the army and is not altered by outside

prejudice. It was thought that there would be a severe strain

upon discipline when a colored officer rose to the rank of captain

and to the command of white officers. But in Captain Young's case

his white subordinates seem to have realized that it is the

position and rank that they are compelled to salute and obey, and

not the individual. This principle is at the bottom of all

discipline. Only too frequently do subordinates throughout the

army have to remind themselves of this when obeying men for whose

social qualities and character they have neither regard nor

respect. During the war with Spain Captain Young commanded a

negro battalion from Ohio, which was pronounced the best drilled

organization in the large army assembled at Camp Alger near

Washington. In addition to these officers, Captain John R. Lynch,

formerly a Congressman from Mississippi, and four colored

chaplains represent their race on the commissioned rolls of the

army. All of these men are doing well. One colored chaplain was



dismissed for drunkenness in 1894. Beyond this their record is

unblemished.



Despite the fairness shown in these appointments, there has been

considerable very just criticism of the War Department for its

failure to appoint to the regulars any of the colored officers who

did well in the Forty-eighth and Forty-ninth Volunteers. Every

colonel of volunteers was allowed to designate for examination for

appointment to the regular army the best officers in his regiment.

Hundreds of white officers were selected in this way, but not a

single colored officer was given an examination,--not even

Lieutenant McBryar, with his medal of honor, or Captain Baker.

Similarly fault has been found with Secretary Root because no new

colored regiments were established under the law of February 2,

1901, increasing the army by five regiments of infantry, five of

cavalry, and a large number of companies of artillery. The excuse

most often heard is that the negroes already have sufficient

representation in comparison with the percentage of negroes to

white persons within the borders of the United States. But the

sterling characteristics of the colored soldiers, their loyalty to

the service as shown by the statistics of desertion, and, above

all, their splendid service in Cuba, should have entitled them to

additional organizations. To say the least, the decision of the

War Department smacks considerably of ingratitude. Nevertheless,

the negro regiments have come to stay, both in the regulars and in

the volunteers. The hostilities of the last five years have

dispelled any doubt which may have existed upon this point.





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